History of Diabetes - Part 2 | The Discovery of Insulin | इन्सुलिन की खोज | EDU - 2


In the First Part History of Diabetes (Part-1) we discussed about The Discovery of Insulin. How Diabetes originated 3000 years ago and what were the possible treatment and management of Diabetes thousand of years back. We at Diabexy believe that it is possible to reverse diabetes with the help of healthy eating habits and disciplined lifestyle. Today we talk about important milestone in the history of Diabetes - - Historical perspective of Diabetes - The Discovery of Insulin - When was human Insulin discovered - Who found the cure of Diabetes Lokendra Tomar



In the 1920s, when scientists from all over the world were trying to find an insulin that was suitable for human use. 

In earlier times, when there were no blood tests, how did people use to detect diabetes? 

It was said that diabetes is a non-curable disease and if the person has caught it once, it will remain for a lifetime, it can only be managed and cannot be cured permanently. And when diabetes occurs, it brings many more diseases along because diabetes is a progressive disease.

In earlier times, when diabetes needs to be detected, there were two ways, first was symptom-based, either there’s frequent urination, always hungry, always thirsty, speedy weight loss, then there could be diabetes, and another test was  Urine Taste, if the urine taste is sweeter, then there is confirmed diabetes. 

In this process, there was this problem that it does diagnose whether the patient is diabetic or not but it doesn’t measure the levels of glucose. 

So, there was the scientist, who invented this tablet in the 1900s, that tablet needs to be dropped in urine samples and on heating the sample if the color of the sample changes, that detects the presence of diabetes, the more dense the color the higher level of sugar is present. But there was one problem with this method, by the test we were able to know the presence of diabetes in some cases there were diabetic symptoms but the urine glucose tests were negative. 



So, In 1913, Ivar Bang was a scientist, who invented the tests that can be performed on blood to detect diabetes. It was not just the discovery of blood tests but also the change of thought process. Earlier we used to think that if diabetes needs to be checked, urine tests needs to be done, but this discovery changed this fact and showed that in diabetes firstly the sugar rises in the blood and once the levels are quite high then it shifts into the urine, so the primary focus should be on blood sugar. This all was a huge thought process shift.


Later in the 1970s, glucometers were discovered, they just needed one drop of your blood and immediately reflects your sugar levels. Nowadays, with advanced technology, we have this chip that is inserted into the skin and monitors your blood sugar levels every 10 minutes. This device can also be connected to a mobile phone this machine is called CGM, Continuous Glucose Monitoring system and it is quite affordable and easily available. 



In the 1920s, scientists were trying to find one insulin, usable for human use. John Macleod and his team were the ones leading to finding such insulin. John Macleod was the head professor in the biochemistry department, he had a good laboratory and his work was famous all over the world. He was leading the research department. There was an orthopedic doctor in London, named Frederick Banting, he was really interested in the field of diabetes and so asked to join hands with John Macleod. He wanted to implement some concepts, regarding the discovery of Insulin. John Macleod invited him and offered him the workspace in his laboratory and also provided him with one of his assistants, Charles Herbet, as Frederick was unaware of many biochemical procedures in the laboratory. 


They both worked on insulin and discovered one sample, when this sample was tested on human beings, it reduced the blood sugar level but created some allergic reactions. Being a good leader John Macleod invited one more member to his team, James B Collip, he was the master in protein purification. The team of 4, John Macleod, Charles Herbet, Frederick Banting, and James B Collip started working on the discovery of Insulin. 


They discovered a purified sample of insulin with great hopes this time and chose a boy of 14 years of age for the test. This child was hospitalized and was in critical condition. They injected the first insulin injection into that 14-year-old boy. The injection worked magically for the child, it helped improve his blood sugar readings, improved his body weight gradually, and the boy started looking normal and healthy with time. The team went extremely happy and was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1923 for the discovery of insulin. 


This discovery proved that diabetes occurs because of a lack of insulin and this happens because the pancreas is not able to produce enough insulin. In the 1950s, a scientist discovered the tablet, which was a substitute for insulin injection. With these discoveries, allopathic science evolved with time, leaving behind other systems of medicine. 


Still, there were few scientists who were not ready to believe this theory and started their own research and tests. They started performing serum insulin tests on diabetic patients and the findings were really surprising. Only in 10% of cases, there was a lack of insulin and in the other 90% of cases, either there was a normal level of insulin or there was more than normal level of insulin present. Now, with these findings, things got complicated and these scientists distributed diabetes into two types, Type-1 in which there is a lack of insulin, and Type-2 in which insulin levels are not low.

Now the query arises, if a person has a normal or more than normal level of insulin then why are their sugar levels on the higher side, and how they’re diabetic?  

Let’s know about it in Edu-3 Real cause of Diabetes

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